Verilog Programming Introduction and Resources

Verilog is a hardware description language (HDL). This is similar to a programming language, but not quite the same thing. Whereas a programming language is used to build software, a hardware description language is used to describe the behavior of digital logic circuits. That is to say, an HDL is used to design computer chips: processors, CPUs, motherboards, and similar digital circuitry.

Verilog History

Verilog was one of the first modern HDLs. There were several earlier HDLs, going back to the 1960s, but they were relatively limited. Until Verilog (and its close competitor, VHDL), most circuit design was done primarily by hand, translating the behavior specified in a formal Hardware Description Language into drafted circuit-board blueprints.

Verilog started in the early 1980s as a proprietary (closed source) language for simulating hardware — in part for doing hardware verification work. (The name is a combination of "verification" and "logic.") The design incorporated ideas from other HDLs (mostly HiLo) and also from programming languages (mostly C). Once people started using the language, it was clear that it could be used to design new hardware. This required designing hardware synthesis tools which could translate the logic of an HDL module into a physical design.

In 1990, the company that owned Verilog (Cadence) decided to open source the language. They transferred the rights to a new non-profit organization called Open Verilog International (which later merged with the equivalent organization for VHDL to form Accellera). Hardware vendors quickly began modifying and extending Verilog for their own purposes, creating dozens of slightly-incompatible versions. OVI asked the IEEEto standardize the language, which it did in 1995. IEEE continues to be the authoritative standards body for the Verilog language, and Accellera is the primary driver of language development.

Verilog has changed a great deal over the last three decades. Prior to standardization, each new version from Cadence introduced a large number of new features. Since the standard was taken up by the IEEE, there have been three language specifications — the latest in 2005.

The Verilog Family

In addition to the core Verilog language, there are two major members of the Verilog family.

  • SystemVerilogis a superset of Verilog which adds a complete hardware verification language.
  • Verilog-AMS is a derivative of Verilog that adds features for describing analog and mixed-signal systems.

Verilog Syntax and Examples

The syntax and structure of Verilog is very similar to C. The major difference being that it includes structures and operators for describing hardware-specific details.

Some things are made more explicit in Verilog — propagation time and signal strength, for example — which aren't really dealt with in languages like C.

Other things are actually abstracted a bit — like flip-flops (exchanging the values of two variables) which can be shown in Verilog without the need for temporary assignment to ad-hoc variables. In the following example, the values in the x and y variables are swapped:

 x <= y;
 y <= x;

To give you a little feel for the language, here are three examples of the same multiplex process. These all combine the signals from two inputs into a single output.

Example: Continuous Assignment

wire out;
assign out = sel ? a : b;

Example: Procedure

reg out;
always @(a or b or sel)
 1'b0: out = b;
 1'b1: out = a;

Example: If-Else

reg out;
always @(a or b or sel)
 if (sel)
 out = a;
 out = b;

The alwayskeyword forms a never-ending loop. When the @()operator is added, one iteration of the loop happens whenever the named values change.

Verilog Resources

Because Verilog is not a traditional software programming language, resources are more focused on books. But we have put together some of the best online resources as well.

Online Resources


Unlike popular software development languages, there just aren't that many online resources and tutorials for Verilog. If you want to learn the language, you'll need to acquire some physical books.

Introductory Books

These are for people just starting to learn Verilog.

Intermediate and Advanced Books

Books for people who already know Verilog, and want to increase their skill level.

Books just about System Verilog

Alternatives to Verilog

Verilog is one of the two most commonly used hardware description languages. The other is VHDL. Additionally, C++can also be used as an HDL and HVL, though mostly only for high-level behavioral design. Most serious hardware developers are fluent in all three, plus major low-level operating system languages like C.